The Grammar saga continues! Here are some Friday afternoon funsies for all you grammar lovers out there!

Here is some information from John Langan and Janet M. Goldstein’s English Brushup, 5th edition

 Chapter 21- English Brushup- Numbers and Abbreviations

Guidelines for writing numbers:

  1. Spell out a number only if it can be written in one or two words
  2. Spell out any number that begins a sentence
  3. Be consistent when writing a series of numbers. If one or more numbers in a series need to be written as numerals, write them all as numerals

The carpenter bought 150 nails, 12 bolts, and 2 drill bits.

  1. Use numericals to write dates, times, addresses, percentages, portions of a book, and exact amounts of money that include change

Abbreviations

Typically want to avoid using these in papers written for class. Here are some that are okay to use in formal writing:

  1. Titles that are used with proper names

Mrs. Richardson, Dr. Bell, Prof. George Smith

  1. Initials in a person’s name

Edgar A. Poe

  1. Time references (A.M., P.M., A.D., etc.)
  2. Organizations, technical words, and trade names referred to by their initials. Usually written in all caps and without periods

YMCA, UNICEF

Chapter 22- English Brushup- Usage

Incorrect and correct expressions

Incorrect Correct
anyways, anywheres anyway, anywhere
being as, being that because, since
can’t help but, cannot hardly, cannot scarcely can’t help, can hardly, can scarcely
could of, may of, might of, must of, should of, would of could have, may have, might have, must have, should have, would have
had ought ought
irregardless regardless
kind of a kind of
nowheres nowhere
off of off
suppose to, use to supposed to, used to
sure and, try and sure to, try to
the reason is because the reason is that
ways (meaning distance) way

Chapter 24- English Brushup- More about Subjects and Verbs

 Sentences with more than one subject

A sentence might have a compound subject- in other words, more than one   subject.

Ex. Ellen and Karla have started their part-time business.

Sentences with more than one verb

A sentence may have a compound verb- in other words, more than one verb.

Ex. They plan parties for other people and also provide all the refreshments.

Sentences with more than one subject and verb

A sentence might have both a compound subject and a compound verb.

Ex. In the last two weeks, Ellen and Karla arranged a wedding reception, catered a retirement dinner, and earned more than five hundred dollars.

Chapter 25- English Brushup- Verb Tense, Voice, Verbals, and Irregular Pairs

Tense-

Refers to time

Tells us when the action took place

There are 12 major tenses in English

Present (now or habitually)

Past (already happened)

Future (going to happen)

Present Perfect (began in past and now completed or continuing in present) (has looked)

Past Perfect (happened before another past action) (had looked)

Future Perfect (is going to happen before some other future action) (will have looked)

Present Progressive (in progress) (is looking)

Past progressive (was in progress) (was looking)

Future progressive (will be in progress) (will be looking)

Present Perfect Progressive (was in progress and still is) (has been looking)

Past Perfect Progressive (was in progress until recently) (had been looking)

Future Perfect Progressive (will be in progress until a set time in the future) (will have been looking)

Voice

Active voice- action of the verb is done by the subject

he takes the child home.

Passive voice – the action is done to the subject

– the child was taken home by him.

Verbals

Formed from verbs, are used to describe people, places, and things

Infinitive- to plus a verb

            – the children began to cry

Participle – present = verb + ing, past = verb + ed or irregular

the crying frightened the child.

Gerund – verb + ing

– crying is sometimes very healthy.

Troublesome irregulars:

-Lay / lie

-Sit / set

-Rise / raise

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